I've been maintaining this blog (for better or for worse) over the last eight years. Over these years, its natural evolution has led it into becoming something of a niche place for discussion of music in general and Qawwali in particular. Rather than trying to return my existing blog to its pre-Qawwali eclectic roots, I decided I’d start anew on Tumblr. So if you’re interested in music, Qawwali and subcontinental culture, keep reading/listening/watching/commenting here. For all of the above and everything else under the sun, head on over to my Tumblr page .

Wednesday, August 27, 2014

...Of Mountains And The Melodies Therein

A month or so ago, I was in the deserts of Bahawalpur. Now I am in the vale of Swat, one of the most beautiful, and in the recent past, most volatile regions of the world. To be transplanted from a place where the average temperatures are in the high 40's to a place where there's still snow on the ridge-line is an interesting experience to say the least. It involved a whole lot of traveling in not a whole lot of time, as well as physical/mental readjustment of a significant nature. I happen to be inordinately fond of long road-trips and my car has stuck with me through thick and thin despite my very rudimentary driving skills, so the traveling bit wasn't an issue. The physical readjustment wasn't too difficult either because I spent half a week acclimatizing (and touching base with the family) in Murree which has a height and temperature slightly more temperate than Swat. The mental readjustment took some time, but with the help of my "Survival Kit" I managed to make the initial days here a tad more 'bardaasht-able'.

I have been here for a month and a half now, and expect to stay till sometime after the New Year at least. In the last five weeks my duties have led me across some of the most remote as well as the some of the most widely visited parts of Swat. To say that Swat is beautiful would be a gross understatement. It currently enjoys a restive peace after a couple of traumatic years, and the tourists - the primary source of the region's bread and butter - have begun to return in droves. During my travels in Swat, I've "enjoyed" a variety of living conditions and weather, and have had to pitch and roll my tent every few days or so. In a brilliant symbiotic relationship, I have kept my camera and my iPod charged and they have done likewise for me. The result is that I have the beginnings of a wonderful audiovisual travelogue of Swat. Whether it was the subconscious influence of my surroundings or an organic choice, what I listened to gradually became more in tune with what I saw or photographed. What follows is a series of selections from my audiovisual travelogue. As with the Bahawalpur post, the music here is of, from, or about the mountains.

Mountain Melodies - A Swat Playlist 

1. Saiyyan Bina Ghar Soona - Raag Pahadi - Ustad Salamat Ali - Nazakat Ali Khan
2. Hari Om Tatsat - Raag Pahadi - Ustad Barre Ghulam Ali Khan
3. Dhun - Raag Pahadi - Ustad Vilayat Khan

I should preface the post by admitting that I know next to nothing about the technical intricacies of North Indian classical music. I wouldn't be able to tell the difference between an Asavari and an Anandi if my life depended on it. It is a failing that I have tried to correct, but it'll take plenty of time. However, I can identify a few basic Ragas, Pahadi being one of them. It is an enchanting Raga, described by one musicologist; The raga is like a lover, unruffled in union, serene in separation, powerful enough to achieve eternal union, but resigned to the painful parting ordained by destiny. Ustad Salamat Ali Khan , despite once referring to it disdainfully as just a "halka phulka raag" , performed many extremely enchanting pieces in Pahadi. This playlist starts off with a wonderful little thumri by the two scions of the Shaam-Chaurasi Gharana, imbued with mellowness and longing.

This is followed by one of the very first pieces of Classical music I ever heard, and one of the most magical. I bought a CD of Ustad Barre Ghulam Ali Khan at my favorite record store / video store / abode of awesomeness , which sadly burnt to the ground four years ago. The very first track on the album was a stupendous Bhajan in Pahadi, and listening to it still gives me goosebumps. It immediately evokes something mystical, powerful and immortal, yet at the same time feels infused with the freshness and vitality of the mountains that are symbolized by the Raga.. The final Classical performance in this playlist is by my favorite Sitar-nawaz, Ustad Vilayat Khansaheb. Taken from a set of remastered 78 RPM recordings, this short 'Gat" displays Vilayat Khansaheb's unique ability to literally make the Sitar sing, the epitome of the "Vilayatkhani" or "Gayeki" style. Sounding almost like a folk tune, this piece is best enjoyed while sitting on the grassy banks of a mountain stream.

4. Blue Ridge Mountains - Fleet Foxes
5. Country Roads - John Denver
6. The Mountain - Levon Helm
7. Moonlight In Vermont - Billlie Holiday
8. Pinegum - Paul Reddick And The Sidemen

As these next five performances show, mountains evoke a set of similar themes throughout the world. There is a sense of longing, a sense of separation and a yearning for return pervading songs about mountains, along with a sense of mystery and wonder. The mountains in these songs are settings for tales of separation and return; of toil and hardship, of nature in its beauty, and of a very strange night. Fleet Foxes describe their music as "Cosmic tones for mental therapy", and provide immaculate harmonies as they sing of quivering forests and shivering darkness. John Denver's "Country Roads" was our official road-trip anthem, my father's favorite English song, and is one of the seminal songs of my life. "Drummers shouldn't sing. Except Levon Helm." said Joe Strummer, and one's bound to agree with him. Levon's last two albums are a triumph in more ways than one, and this ballad is one of the highlights. Moonlight In Vermont may refer to the titular US state, but the way Lady Day sings it here, it could refer to any sycamore-lined, meadowlark-populated valley anywhere. This recording from 1957 features the stupendous Ben Webster on tenor saxophone. And ending on a spooky, bluesy note, Paul Reddick and The Sidemen sing of a nighttime trip through a forest with a mysterious companion, amid snow, the scent of pinegum and a lacquer moon.

9. Isharon Isharon Main - Asha Bhosle And Muhammad Rafi - OP Nayyar
10. Yeh Dil Aur Unn Ki Nigaahon Ke Saaye - Lata Mangeshkar - Jaidev
11. Parbaton Ke Pairron Pe - Sumand Kalyanpur And Muhammad Rafi - Khayyam
12. Tum Apna Ranj-o-Gham - Jagjit Kaur - Khayyam 

The next four recordings are from some of the most amazing soundtracks of Bollywood's Golden Age. OP Nayyar's fresh, folk based and unbelievably melodic soundtrack to "Kashmir Ki Kali" is filled with gem after gem. Asha and Rafi add magic to Shammi Kapoor and Sharmila Tagore's playful cavort through the pine forest in a pure Pahadi folk-tune. Following this is Jaidev's wonderful composition for 1973's Prem Parbat. Jaidev is an oft overlooked composer, but here, with more than a little help from Lata, he allows the mountains, the streams and flowers to sing their song in their own words. The next two songs are from the soundtrack to 1964's "Shagoon" by Khayyam. The first song is as perfect an evocation of the mountains as I've ever heard, the castanets literally chirping in the background. The second is a stunning song, part accusation - part lament - part love song, sung by Khayyam's very gifted wife, Jagjit Kaur. Of all the classic Bollywood songs, these four were on most heavy rotation this past month and a half, and the reason is obvious I think.

13. Ajj Na Javeen Ve - Mubarak Ali Lahori - Agha Majeed Fareedi Qawwal
14. Saif-ul-Mulook - Inayat Hussain Bhatti   

I had to pick a Qawwali recording for the playlist, and I chose this mehfil performance by two relatively obscure but immensely talented performers because, musically and lyrically, this performance brings Pahadi to life. The beloved is leaving, with only the weather and the pleadings of the lover tarrying him. It has a rich Potohari flavour, with glimpses of the Do-Aba style of Punjabi singing, and I've listened to it many a rainy, stormy night. From the folk canon, I have selected a recording of THE seminal mountain epic in subcontinental Sufi poetry, Hz Mian Muhammad Bukhsh (RA)'s Saif-ul-Mulook. This recording from a delightful cassette features the monumental voice of one of my personal heroes, Inayat Hussain Bhatti. Each word, each cadence of the poem is soaked in mountain dew, and Bhatti Sb's magnificent voice brings it to life. 

15. Star Dust - Lester Young With The Oscar Peterson Trio
16. Winter - Edward Simon Trio  

The two jazz recordings that conclude this playlist are very special to me. As soon as I arrived in Swat, I was sent to a remote valley, where there were ten of us living in an abandoned building located next to a mountain stream. There were no sources of artificial light for miles around, and for almost two weeks I was almost totally cut off from the rest of the world. The beauty of the place and the sound of gushing water nearby made the days extremely pleasant, but it was at night that the place truly came alive. An hour or so after Iftar (it was Ramazan back then), a group of locals would gather near the stream next to our building and sing local folksongs, accompanying themselves on the Rubab. Almost simultaneously, the stars would begin appearing in the night sky. I had never seen such a wonderful sky in my life, and for the first time in my life, I actually saw the band of stars that form the Milky Way, our galaxy. After the musicians would leave, I would listen to these two recordings on repeat, and watch as the stars wound their way across the night sky. Most nights I fell asleep with the music still playing in my ears, and I can still hear a faint tinkle of it whenever I look up into the mountain sky. In the first, Lester Young plays with unbelievable feeling and restraint while Oscar Peterson offers faint glimmers of starlight in the background. Lester Young is one of my favorite jazz musician and here he turns the Tenor Sax into a living, breathing creation. The final recording (pardon the poor audio, I recorded it off the late Masood Hasan's wonderful radio show) is by a group that I haven't heard much by. It evokes all the various shades of mountain life; the streams and breezes, the children playing up and down steep mountain tracks, the buzzing of the bees in the honey-farms, the gently falling snow of winter and the sudden torrents of spring. 

Mountain Melodies - A Swat Playlist

That was the audio part of my audiovisual travelogue, and to end this post, here's the visual part, a selection from the photos I took over the last five weeks.

Saturday, August 23, 2014

...Of The Benevolent Breeze : Maulana Abdur Rehman Jami (RA)

Previous entries in this series :

1. Khwaja Ghulam Fareed (RA)

2. Allama Muhammad Iqbal (RA)

3. Bedam Shah Warsi (RA)


In a remote valley in central Afghanistan, at the confluence of two rivers, nestled amongst rugged mountains stands a solitary tower of staggering beauty. It is the only remaining symbol of a once glorious city, the capital of a magnificent dynasty. At almost 2000 metres above sea level and with a height of 65 metres, this tower quite literally "speaks with the stars", as one description puts it. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and the UNESCO website defines the following three criteria for its selection :

1. Its architecture and ornamentation are outstanding from the point of view of art history, fusing together elements from earlier developments in the region in an exceptional way and exerting a strong influence on later architecture in the region.

2.  The innovative architecture and decoration of the Minaret played a significant role in the development of the arts and architecture of the Indian sub-continent and beyond.

3.  The Minaret  and its associated archaeological remains constitute exceptional testimony to the power and quality of the civilization that dominated the region in the 12th and 13th centuries.

4.  The Minaret is an outstanding example of Islamic architecture and ornamentation in the region and played a significant role for further dissemination.

The Minaret shares its location with the subject of today's post. The location is the town of "Jam", birth-place of one of the greatest Sufi poets and mystics of the Persianate civilization,  Nur ud-Dīn Abd ur-Rahmān Jāmī (RA). Read the above description again, overlook the word 'architecture' and replace the 13th century with the 15th, and you have a perfect description of Maulana Jami (RA). Jami (RA) towers over the landscape of Sufi literature and forms an important link between the land of his birth and the rest of the Persianate Empire. He is the last of the great Persian Sufi poets, the culmination of centuries of development and innovation in thought and expression. The only difference is that where the Minaret Of Jam speaks to the stars, Jami (RA) speaks to all of God's creation; the moon and the stars, the trees and the flowers, the nightingale and (most poignantly and beautifully) the breeze.

Maulana Jami (RA) was born in 1414 and died in 1492. His era forms the bookend to the Classical Era of Farsi poetry and his poetry is enriched by the influence of all the major Sufi poets of the preceding five centuries. What emerges is an idiom characterized by simplicity, depth of meaning, an abundance of simile and metaphor, and most importantly; the defining characteristics of Maulana Jami (RA)'s poetry, deep love for the Prophet (S.A.W). His poetical works, especially "Haft Awrang" and "Baharestan", as well as prose (including the beautiful "Lawaaeh") are canonical pillars of Sufi literature and were part of the curriculum of both Sufi and secular studies for centuries. But what sets Jami (RA) apart from all the poets who preceded or followed him, is his complete mastery over the "Na'at" - poetry in praise of the Prophet (S.A.W) ; so much so that the name of Jami (RA) is synonymous with Farsi na'at.

The na'at is not a verse form per se. A ghazal can be a na'at, so can a mathnavi, or a ruba'ai. In fact, na'ats have been written in all known verse forms of Urdu and Farsi. Thus, Jami (RA)'s mastery over the na'at implies a mastery over multiple verse forms. He wrote ghazals, beautiful ruba'ais and in the "Haft Awrang", seven books of mathnavi. All of his na'ats share the same ideas of humility, depictions of the physical and spiritual beauty of the Prophet (SAW) and the overarching theme of his poetry, the mercy and benevolence of Allah expressed through the character of the Prophet (SAW). His intense love for the Prophet (S.A.W) is best summed up in this (perhaps apocryphal) tale that I also mentioned in a previous post.

"It so happened that once this ‘ishq' was at its peak and poor Jami became restless. He composed a wonderful naat in the praise of Allah’s Habib and in the agony of love made a vow to recite that very poem in front of the Prophet’s Mausoleum in Madina. So, gathering some of his many disciples with him, he set off on the long and arduous journey to fulfil his vow.

After many a month of travel, the caravan led by the Imam of Love, Abdul Rahman Jami, reached the outskirts of the City of the Prophet and Madina was only a few miles journey away. As they camped for the day, they saw a rider on a horse coming towards them at a galloping pace. The strange rider stopped in their midst and asked the group, “Which of you is Jami?” The disciples pointed out Jami and said, “That is our leader, Shaykh Imam Abdul Rahman Jami!” So the rider guided his horse towards Jami and, alighting, greeted Jami with the words, “Assalamu alaykum!”

  “Wa alaykum as-salam! Who are you? Where are you from and why are you here?” asked the venerable Sufi.   

“Jami, I have come here from Madina!”

At the mention of these words the lover of the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam), Jami, took off his turban and placed it the feet of the stranger saying, “May I be sacrificed for these feet!  They have come from the city of my Prophet!”


Jami continued, “Good sir! Tell me, why have you come?”

The man went silent for a while and then answered, “Jami what I am going to tell you, you must promise to hear it with a stout heart.”

 “I will”, said a slightly bemused Jami, “but tell me!”   

“Jami”, continued the rider, “I have been sent to you by the Prophet (Sall’Allahu Ta’ala Alayhi Wa’alihi Wa’sallam) himself"

“Tell me! What does my Master say?” interjected Jami. 

“Jami, the Prophet (Sall’Allahu Ta’ala Alayhi Wa’alihi Wa’sallam) has sent me to tell you that he has forbidden you to enter Madina and visit him!”    

At these words Jami was thunderstruck, his head swam and his legs gave way beneath him and with an agonised shriek the Shaykh fell to the ground in a swoon. The disciples were terrified that their Shaykh had passed away but after many hours Jami came back to a state of consciousness and he wept copiously.    The messenger was still there and Jami asked him, “Tell me O’ bringer of such tidings! Why does my Master prevent me from entering Madina? What sin have I committed? Why is my Medinan Lord angry with me?” 

The messenger replied,”the Master is not upset with you. Indeed, he is very happy with you!”.

"Then why does my liege-lord prevent me from visiting him?” 

“Jami! The Prophet(Sall’Allahu Ta’ala Alayhi Wa’alihi Wa’sallam) said to me that tell Jami that if he comes to Madina with such love in his heart I will have no course but to come out of my tomb and greet him in person – such would be the recompense for his love! – so tell him not to enter Madina. I will visit him myself! Tell Jami not to come and visit me – I will visit him!”

 The following selections from my collection serve to highlight Jami (RA)'s mastery over the na'at. I follow the same rules as the previous posts ; one recording per artist and one recording per kalam. Enjoy !

1. Naseema - Manzoor Ahmed Niazi, Abdullah Manzoor Niazi Qawwal 

It is completely natural that I start this collection off with the recording that started my love affair with Qawwali. As I've mentioned previously, Manzoor Ahmed Niazi (RA)'s Naseema was one of the first Qawwali recordings I heard that fateful evening almost seven years ago. Since then, I have heard dozens of versions of the kalaam, most of which I cataloged in a previous post, but Naseema belongs to the late Ustad Manzoor Niazi. His voice, perfectly contrasted by Abdullah Manzoor Niazi's crackling delivery, lends a wonderful earthy flavor to this recording. And despite the presence of younger, more vigorous performers in the party, it is clear that Manzoor Niazi Sb still leads the group. The many brief takraars are wonderful, the percussion gives the performance a wonderful swing, and most importantly, the group never lapses into undue loudness or vocal histrionics, presenting a melodious, vigorous yet stately performance.

2. Jahan Roshan Ast Az Jamal-e-Muhammad (SAW) - Meraj Ahmed Nizami Qawwal 

From one grand old man of the Qawal Bacchhon Ka Gharana to another, arguably the grandest old man of all. Meraj Ahmed Nizami is the senior-most living Qawwal of the sub-continent ; both in terms of age as well as  longevity of career and mastery over repertoire. He has steadfastly refused to tamper with the traditional style of performance, eschewing such newfangled monstosities as electric accompaniment or fusion sessions, opting instead to preserve the centuries old style of Khanqahi Qawwali. The similarities in style to his late cousin Ustad Manzoor Niazi are obvious, and the octogenarian Ustad delivers this kalam in a wonderfully crisp performance.

3. Ya Muhammad (S.A.W) Ba Maney Be Sar-o-Samaan - Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan & Party 

This is the kind of Nusrat performance I prefer. None of the vocal calisthenics, undue urgency or auditory bombast that plagued so many of his live performances especially during his latter years. This is Nusrat at his serenest, his tempo perfectly complimenting the kalam, ably accompanied by his party. Farrukh Fateh Ali Khan's wonderful sazeena at the start is filled with nice flourishes, Dildar Hussain's tabla maintains an unobtrusive madhyalaya beat and the performance is allowed to flow smoothly. Nusrat begins with a mellow alaap and some wonderful Farsi verses and the mood is set. The tone is pensive and subdued, as befits a humble plaint to the Prophet (SAW), especially when Nusrat addresses that favorite of Jami (RA)'s , the breeze.

Ae Saba, W'ae paek-e-mushtaqaan ba dargaah-e-Nabi
O breeze, O envoy of us yearning ones in the court of the Prophet (SAW)

Throughout the performance, Nusrat uses Farsi and Urdu girahs to excellent effect, the harmonium provides little flourishes throughout and Nusrat is at his most melodic. There are mini-takraars ( at "Shah-e-Shahaan" and "Chashm-e-Rehmat" for example) and sargams but they never overwhelm the mood of this wonderful performance.

4. Mun Khaake Kaf-e-Paaye Rindaane Kharabaatam - Subhan Ahmed Nizami Qawwal 

Subhan Ahmed Nizami is one of the most exciting young Qawwals performing today. Grandson of Iftekhar Ahmed Nizami, one of the members of the original Manzoor Niazi Qawwal party of the 50's and 60's, Subhan embodies all the qualities of the Qawwal Bacchon ka Gharana. He is a wonderful innovator, always staying within the bounds of "Rivaayat" or traditional Qawwali, all the while improvising and exploring the nuances of the kalaam and the composition. His preference towards performing canonical mystical texts sets him apart from most modern Qawwals, and this has gained him a wide following among Qawwali conoisseurs both in Pakistan and abroad. His performance style is vigorous and lively, but never overloud or jarring. This kalam of Hz Jami (RA)'s has become something of a signature tune of Subhan's, and in this Mehfil recording, he sings it with wonderful verve. The girahs towards the end of the performance are wonderfully apt and display his mastery over the nuances of the kalam, rounding out the performance nicely.

5. Ze Rehmat Kun Nazar Bar Haal-e-Zaaram - Munshi Raziuddin Ahmed, Farid Ayaz & Abu Muhammad Qawwal 

This is one performance to savour, recorded during a home mehfil in the latter stages of Munshi Raziuddin Sb's life, when he had handed over the Qawwali party to his extremely talented sons. His voice weakened somewhat by age, he nevertheless leads the performance. A brilliant sazeena leads on to a wonderful little performance "Koi sheher Madina jaaye", which Farid Ayaz embellishes with that exquisite voice of his. The performance within a performance continues till, just short of the 10 minute mark, the Qawwals launch into the main kalam.

The na'at is stylistically very similar to Maulana Jami (RA)'s other seminal na'at, "Tanam Farsooda Jaanpara', and the melody suits it wonderfully. Munshi Raziuddin Sb's performance lends gravity to ther performance, and the Qawwals don't lapse into the loudness that sometimes overpowers the later recordings of Farid Ayaz, Abu Muhammad and Party. The performers, especially Munshi Raziuddin Sb, are clearly enjoying the performance and it shows. The girahbandi is faultless and Farid Ayaz displays flashes of his uncle Ustad Bahauddin Qawwal's style in his taans and girahs. Abu Muhammad's voice is crisp and powerful as always, and the taali and percussion are forceful, another hallmark of this group. The wonderful interludes at the 21-22 mark are especially endearing, bandishes that have ceased to be performed after Munshi Raziuddin Sb's death. The taali and takraar at the end of the performance are especially 'zor-daar' as Farid Ayaz offers a final, wonderful girah.

6. Tanam Farsooda Jaanpara - Fateh Ali-Mubarak Ali Qawwal 

 The undisputed masters of Qawwali performed a number of different versions of this seminal kalam. Varying in tempo, arrangement, duration and girahbandi, each performance is a masterpiece. They were probably the best exponents of incorporating traditional Hindustani instruments in Qawwali, steering well clear of harmoniums in their studio recordings. Using sarangis, sitars, sarods, clarinets and occasionally flutes, they were experts at evoking just the right mood for each kalam. Here, as the instruments strike up a melancholy note, expressing the longing and desire in the poet's heart, the scene is set for Mubarak Ali Khan's piercing alaap. As in all their other studio recordings, the accompanists only provide the taali, with the vocal duties shared exclusively by the three brothers. This lends a unique dignity and stateliness to their performance.

The tempo is gradually accelerated for each verse, before being reined back again. Each verse provides opportunities for Mubarak Ali Khan's taankaari and Fateh Ali Khan's mini-takraars. Some of these taans and takrars were later copied verbatim by Nusrat and the other disciples of the Ustads in their performances of this kalaam. A full seven minutes are spent exploring the final verse of the kalam. Mubarak Ali offers vacillating taans, that were later used by his son Mujahid Mubarak Ali as a member of Nusrat's party and his disciple Majeed Fareedi as a member of various wonderful Qawwali ensembles. Fateh Ali and Salamat Ali construct takraar upon takraar as the Ustads prove once and for all that a performance can be vibrant, energetic and 'zor-daar' without overwhelming the kalaam. Mubarak Ali's celebrated 'Pahaari' taan arrives at the 17 minute before the Ustads deliver one final verse, topping off a wonderful performance.

7. Tu Sultaan-e-Sahib Sareer Aamadi - Haji Mahboob Ali Qawwal 

This is a powerful, vigorous performance, different from Haji Mahboob Sb's usual style in that it lacks much girahbandi.  What it lacks in girahbandi, it more than makes up in a million other ways. Starting with a brief, crisp sitar and harmonium sazeena and Haji Mushtaq's customary alaap, the dholak-driven performance proper begins. This arrangement allows for wonderful takraars and (in another departure from his usual performance style) taankari by Haji Mahboob Sb. Haji Sb's delivery on this performance is almost 'jalaali' as he stresses each word in each verse. This is one of Maulana Jami (RA)s most melodious na'ats, giving the Qawwals ample opportunities to vary the tempo without losing track of the thread of the main kalam.

I had to strictly enforce the 'one recording per artist' rule in Haji Mahboob Sb's case. Haji Sb's repertoire was so varied that I could have constructed a post comprising of his versions of all of the kalaams in this post and then some. Although given the title of "Andaleeb-e-Rumi", Haji Sb was adept at performing Maulana Jami (RA)'s naats. Maybe one day when I have the requisite permission, I'll write a post consisting only of Haji Sb's exquisite renditions of Jami (RA)'s na'ats.

8. Cho Mah Dar Arz-o-Samaa - Jafar Hussayn Khan Badayuni Qawwal 

 Ustad Jafar Husseyn Khan possessed a style completely his own, unlike any of his contemporary Qawwals. Mellow, takraar-based, with loving attention paid to each and every word, each note of the performance; his was the most endearing style among all the Qawwals I have heard. In this wonderful performance (one of my favorites) , he is at his best, accompanied by his nephew Wajahat Hussayn Khan (who passed away in tragic circumstances recently). The takraars are reminiscent of Murli Qawwal (especially the wonderful takraar at 'Rashk-e-Malak') and the taans are sweet and melodious. When he enunciates "Mun Aasiyam, Mun Aajizam", one can feel the humility and the plaintiveness dripping from his voice. Wodehouse talks of spreading "sweetness and light", something Jafar Hussayn Khan was an absolute expert in, capturing the mood of this na'at perfectly. The final flourish is the superb mini-takraar at "Jaan-o-Dilam" before the performance winds down.

9. Az Husne Malihe Khud - Haji Ghulam Fareed Sabri And Party 

Haji Ghulam Fareed Sabri possessed one of the most astounding voices of the last century. From his earliest recordings with Kallan Khan to his final performances in the early 1990s, his was an instantly recognizable, almost magical presence. With Haji Maqbool Sabri's superbly melodic voice as his counterpoint, he reigned over the Qawwali world for almost two decades. Some of his best work however, is found in the solo albums that were released by various European labels in the late 1980s adn 1990s. This recording is taken from one of the best Qawwali records ever produced, "Jami" , released in 1995 by Piranha Records, Germany. Everything in this performance, from the wonderful Sazeena that prefaces it to Haji Ghulam Fareed's hefty alaap, exudes energy and life. The dholak is especially lively, and Haji Sb propels the performance along at an explosive pace. The takraars are embellished by powerful taans, wonderful melodic improvisations (Khud tegh zadi bar man, naame digeraan kardi). Each verse is individually explored, displaying glimpses of the twenty year old Ghulam Fareed Sabri from Kallan Khan's party. This recording, as well as this album, is the most fitting tribute imaginable to one of the most vital, most powerful Qawwals of his age.

10. Ze Shaukat Jaan Ba Lab Aamad Tamaami - Bakhshi Salamat Qawwal 

 The final recording in this post is by the Qawwal group that defies superlatives. Exceptional vocalists, superb instrumentalists, brilliant shagirds of Fateh Ali-Mubarak Ali Qawwal, Bakhshi Salamat Qawwal are one of my favorite Qawwals. Bakhshi Khan's voice has no parallels, and accompanied by Salamat Ali, Mubarak Ali and Sadiq Ali Saddo, it was a fearsome instrument. Like their Ustads, they were experts at using instruments, especially in their wonderful studio recordings, including this recording. It is a short recording, but wonderfully melodious, with the voices of all three vocalists on full display. Saddo Khan's taans and Bakhshi Khan's hefty vocals lend an added poignancy to the words. Having listened to it on repeat on many occasions, I am always transported by this performance, and it forms a fitting bookend to this post.