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Sunday, February 8, 2015

...Of The Alpha and The Omega - Ameer Khusrau (RA)

Previous entries in this series:

1. Khwaja Ghulam Fareed (RA)

2. Allama Muhammad Iqbal (RA)

3. Hz Bedam Shah Warsi (RA)

4. Maulana Abdur Rehman Jami (RA)

5. Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib

6. Baba Bulleh Shah (RA)

Two months ago, I took a monumental trip. With a group of wonderful friends (some of whom I was meeting for the first time), I traveled to a number of cities towns and villages across the length of Pakistan, savoring the many musical delicacies our country possesses. In Karachi we met and listened to Qawwal parties who are torchbearers of distinguished lineage and rich tradition; in the town of Deepalpur we were invited to spend the day with one of the most stupendous Qawwals performing today, and in Lahore, we heard two generations of wonderful Khayal-singers, and chatted with a performer whose career encompasses both Qawwali and Khayal. To call this the proverbial "trip of a lifetime" would be a gross understatement, and I'm hoping I get to experience many more trips like this in my lifetime.

The level of planning and coordination required for the trip meant that there were many chances for things to go wrong. Flights could be missed, performers could be unavailable, the political situation in the country could take one of its customary nosedives, a million things could happen. But in the end, despite one or two minor hiccups, it all went perfectly. As a few of us remarked then, there seemed to have been a guiding spirit watching over us as we made our way from one musical feast to another, and I've been constantly thinking about who that guiding spirit could be. As I began preparing this post, I came to realize that our guiding spirit, and the thread connecting all our various musical experiences on this trip, was Ab'ul Hasan Yamīn ud-Dīn "Ameer" Khusrau (RA). 

Amir Khusrau by Qasim ʿAli in a 15th century manuscript
Ameer Khusrau's presence pervades almost all of Indo-Pakistan culture, and he was a constant throughout all our trip. The Qawwals in Karachi either claimed their lineage from their disciples or performed specific 'bandishes' attributed to him; the khayal singers in Lahore sang bandishes invented by him in'raags' invented by him, accompanied by instruments invented by him, and even in Deepalpur - the heart of Punjab - the link to Khusrau was strong; Khusrau had been captured as a soldier by enemy forces during Balban's reign and kept as a prisoner in an ancient fortress in Deepalpur. Calling him a renaissance man or an epochal figure would be doing him a great disservice. His list of accomplishments, inventions and innovations defies count. He invented, among other musical instruments, the sitar; he wrote poetry and prose in Persian and the then nascent Hindvi languages; he served in the courts and armies of seven different Sultans of Delhi; he created a number of Raags and styles of music. One of his most important innovations was turning the ancient Sufi tradition of 'Samaa' into the progenitor of 'Qawwali'.

In one of the many interesting conversations I had over the course of my musical trek, someone offered a unique insight into Khusrau's personality, an insight that has led me to see his kalaam in an altogether different light. Khusrau was a courtier, a soldier and an acclaimed poet; in short a man of the world. This meant that despite his close relationship with Hz Nizamuddin Auliya (RA), he was never accepted by Hz Nizamuddin (RA) into the inner circle of his disciples and 'khalifaas'. Despite Khusrau's repeated attempts, Hz Nizamuddin (RA) kept him almost at arm's length, possibly because of Khusrau's worldliness. This led to a constant yearning for acceptance and union that literally screams out in his poetry. 

I have chosen 24 kalaams for this post, 12 each from Khusrau's Farsi and Hindvi writings. The sheer number of his kalaams in the Qawwali canon, as well as the literally hundreds of performers who have sung him was what initially led me to form the arbitrary set of rules that has governed this series of posts almost from the start. The rules were mainly borne out by a desire to include as wide a selection of kalaams as possible while insuring that none of the kalaams or artists were repeated. For example, I picked a Fateh Ali Mubarak Ali recording of an obscure Khusrau kalaam over their absolutely superlative recording of another kalam that had also been sung by a number of othre Qawwals; similarly with obscure artists taking precedence over mor epopularly known artists. Some of my inclusions might seem completely out of the left field, but I hope they will introduce the readers to a number of kalaams and artists they haven't heard before. With that, we begin ...

1.    Ae Sarve Nazneene Mun – Prof. Miran Buksh Qawwal

Let’s start this post with one of the oldest recordings in my possession. Miran Buksh Qawwal , or as he is titled in his recordings, “Professor” Miran Buksh Qawwal lived in the first half of the 20th century and belonged to Peshawar. Beyond this basic bio-data, I cannot hazard a conjecture. What is beyond doubt however, is the Professor’s superlative vocal ability and style. He sings Farsi kalam with the proper ‘Darri’ lilt, he uses powerful, vacillating taans, he utters “Qurban ! Afreen !!” at particularly moving verses, and packs a wealth of meaning and power into a 3 minute recording. As I wrote in a previous post, Qawwali recordings from the first half of the twentieth century are markedly different from what we recognize as Qawwali today. In the days of 78 RPM records, the Qawwali genre was dominated by solo performers who often sang without the dholak/taali accompaniment synonymous with Qawwali. The three minute recording was often a template that was later embellished and expanded on during live performances. Prof. Miran Buksh is a very obscure artist, but judging from the wealth of medals he is seen sporting on his chest in the few photographs that exist, he got due recognititon for his talents within his lifetime.

2.    Ae Ba Darmaandgi Panaahe Hamaa – Gappu Qawwal

This is the only recording I have of Gappu Qawwal, and it was ripped from a video of his performance. The title says, ‘Gappu Qawwal – Rajasthan’, and the setting is a wonderful interior of a shrine, with the Qawwal party sitting amid a backdrop of cut-glass mosaics and intricate tile-work, with a small group of Sufis sitting across from them. Gappu is an elderly gentleman, with a shock of white hair, and he is accompanied by what seems like a ragtag bunch of ‘hamnavaas’. I have a special liking for recordings by elder Qawwals. The ravages of time lend a certain mellowness and an endearing fragility to their voices; what they lack in power, they more than make up for in feeling. Throughout the performance, he has a beatific smile on his face. The smile is perfectly in tune with the subject of the kalaam, praise of the Prophet (SAW) and his benevolet grace, and an assurance that this grace will be the source of salvation on Judgement Day.

3.    Ae Chehrae Zebaae Tau – Bakhshi Salamat Qawwal ?
The cassette that this recording came in was labelled “Bakhshi Salamat Qawwal”, and later this recording was posted online attributed to Muhammad Ali Fareedi Qawwal. But I’m not sure that although similar in style, this is by neither of the above artists. My guess is, it is Salamat Ali Khan from the Bakhshi Salamat party slumming it for a Radio Pakistan recording. With the attribution out of the way, let’s turn to the performance itself. The sitar overture at the start is short yet brilliant,the clarinet adds a wonderful warmth and the tabla/taali/ is wonderfully Punjabi in style. Some verses are presented with an Urdu tazmeen, others are sung unembellished. There are a couple of verses flubbed and presented in the incorrect order, but these hitches do not derail the performance. There is a wonderful raspy edge to the voices of the vocalists, and they employ a few short but wonderful mini-taans to great effect. To top it off there’s also a ‘zordaar’ takraar or two thrown in for good measure in this energetic 11 minute performance.

4.    Bakhubi Humchoo Mah – Ghulam Hussain Niazi – Sultan Niazi Qawwal

Ghulam Hussain Niazi and his sons Sultan and Usman Hussain Niazi hail from the ‘Hapur’ gharana, a gharana traditionally associated with Dhrupad. Being ‘Pagri-bandd Qawwals’, they regularly perform at the shrine of Hz Khwaja Nizamuddin Aulia (RA) in Delhi as well at the other important sufi shrines of India. Their style consists of a no-frills approach, with emphasis on ‘talaffuz’ and ‘takraaar’. Their style bears imprints of the great Aziz Ahmad Khan Warsi and Jafar Hussain Khan Badayuni Qawwal, but they have a style uniquely their own. In an age where many Qawwals rely on bombast, or do not lay adequate emphasis on ‘talaffuz’, Ghulam Hussain Niazi and sons are ably carrying forward the tradition of ‘Khanqahi’ qawwali.

5.    But-e-Nau Raseeda-e-Mann – Ustad Muhammad Ahmad Warsi Qawwal

This recording proved to be a case of love at first listen for me. Muhammad Ahmad Warsi sahab of Rampur started performing at a very young age, accompanying his father Abdul Shakoor Khan Qawwal. He holds the ‘pagri’ of ‘darbaari qawwal’ at the shrine of Hz Nizamuddin Auliya (RA)’s father Khwaja Syed Ahmed (RA)’s shrine at Badayun. In his early seventies now, Warsi Sb still conveys a youthful vigor and vitality in his performances. I especially love his unique staccato harmonium and his wonderful lay-kaari. This performance of a romantic ghazal of Khusrau’s, meanders along like a stream at a languid and leisurely place; occasionally eddying at a specific phrase here, swirling around a specific takraar there. At the seven minute mark, the flow halts for a superlative, wonderful girah before gathering pace again. Further girahs follow, each girah effortlessly fusing into the main kalaam, which ultimately comes to a halt with a flourish of tabla-notes.

6.    Chashme Maste Ajabe – Ustad Iftekhar Ahmad Amrohi Qawwal

Iftekhar Ahmad Amrohi Qawwal is an anomaly in the world of Khanqahi Qawwali. While most other Qawwals belong to specific ‘gharaanas’ and proudly list their lineages to anybody who will care to listen (and many who couldn’t care less), Iftekhar Ahmad Amrohi proudly owns up to be a first generation Khanqahi Qawwal who actually had to struggle to gain acceptance at the various shrines of the subcontinent. As with the two performers above, an absolute lack of pretense is the hallmark of his performance. In this recording the takraars are especially interesting, short and crisp, a maximum of three to four repetitions of the phrase before the party moves on to the next verse. There are no girahs or long digressions into taankari, just a simple exposition of the main kalaam from start to finish.

7.    Dilam Dar Ashiqi Awara Shud – Fateh Ali – Mubarak Ali Qawwal

They are undisputedly the greatest Qawwals of the 20th century, their mastery over Farsi, Punjabi and Urdu kalaam is unparalleled, their deep grounding in Khayal/Dhrupad means each performance is finely attuned to the Classical idiom, their takraars are dizzyingly electrifying and their taans are vertigo inducingly brilliant. Here Fateh Ali-Mubarak Ali perform a kalaam of Khusrau’s that the poet has imbued with a wonderfully melodious qafia and radeef. The voices flutter, bob and weave; Mubarak Ali dives into a taan and the shehnai follows him in a spiralling descent; Fateh Ali takes a verse and whips it into a takraar and the clarinet swirls around his voice. The phrasing and bol-baant here is wonderful, each word is broken down into half a dozen syllables as part of a bol-taan, all the while maintaining perfect lay-kaari. This is a twelve minute exercise in superb craftsmanship and absolute mastery.

8.    Dishab Ke Mi Rafti Butaan – Subhan Ahmed Nizami Qawwal

Subhan Ahmed Nizami was one of the Qawwals I got to interact with in the course of my Karachi trip. He is the son of the late Afaq Ahmad Nizami and the grandson of Ustad Iftekhar Ahmed Nizami. His grandfather and father passed away at relatively young ages, which meant that Subhan is mostly self-taught, and what a teacher he has proven to be. Dubbed “the thinking man’s qawwal” by my companions in the recent Karachi trip, Subhan’s personality and his performance style are wonderfully cerebral and restrained for someone as young as him. The ghazal sung in this khanqahi performance is said to depict the Prophet (SAW)’s arrival at Makkah, and Subhan wonderfully delivers each vignette, accompanied by a thumping dholak and a lively taali.

9.    Dilash Gar Meherbaan – Ghaus Muhammad Nasir Niazi Qawwal

On the recent trip to Karachi that I mentioned above, I got a chance to interact with some wonderful Qawwals of the Rampur-Atrauli gharana. They will be revisited further down the post, but first a recording by their late elder brother, Ghaus Muhammad Nasir. The son of the wonderful Moin Niazi Qawwal – whose name graces the Qawwali Street in Karachi which houses 31 families of Qawwals – Ghaus Muhammad Niazi started his career by accompanying his father, and after Moin Sb’s death, led his own party. He had a wonderfully mellow and sweet voice, and had a style that perfectly suited his voice. Here he sings a lovely Farsi ghazal of Khusrau’s in his trademark style. His voice is front and center, and the taans and takraars are pleasing without being overpowering. This is a ‘halki-phulki’ ghazal, and the performance perfectly encapsulates the lightness of the verses. It is a tragedy that Ghaus Muhammad Niazi passed away a couple of years ago at a fairly young age, but his and his gharana’s legacy is ably being safeguarded by his younger brothers. Which brings us to …

 10 .  Har Shab Manam Futaada – Taj Muhammad, Shad Muhammad Niazi Qawwal

Taj Muhammad Niazi, Shad Muhammad Niazi and Shaukat Niazi are the younger brothers of the late Ghaus Muhammad Nasir. When he led the party, the brothers performed as accompanists but now they lead the party. Young in age but well-grounded in the Classical style, the brothers are forging their own identity, all the while nurturing the legacy of their elder brother and father. In this home recording, they sing a wistful ghazal of Khusrau’s as sounds from Moin Niazi Qawwal Street waft in through the windows. The talaffuz is correct, the style is mellow and respectful and the voices are confident in tackling the taans; the legacy of the Rampur-Atrauli gharana is in safe hands.

11.  Khabaram Raseeda Imshab – Ghulam Muhammad Saaznawaz & Party

This seems a tiny bit like a cop-out, as Ustad Ghulam Muhammad Saaznawaz wasn’t a ‘Qawwal’ per se. He performed classical Sufi kalams with his party of vocalists and instrumentalists for over six decades and was the only internationally recognized proponent of ‘Kashmiri Sufiyana’. He passed away almost exactly one year ago, but hopefully some of his shagirds will carry his legacy forward. Ustad Saaznawaz’s party consisted of himself on Santoor, and accompanists on Tabla, Sitar, Madhyam and the ‘Saaz-e-Kashmir’ – a five member arrangement wonderfully titled “panj-hathyaar”. The accompanists also served as the vocal chorus. The sound of his party is difficult to describe, it seems to emanate from the sibilant breezes, chirping birds and gushing brooks of the land of his birth. The santoor remains at the foreground as the party navigates the traditional ‘maqqaams’ or raags of Kashmiri Sufiyana music. In this hypnotic recording of the canonical ghazal, the Ustad gives a meandering, mellifluous performance, lingering on the verses as the Santoor tinkles around the words. I could have chosen literally any Qawwal’s version of this ghazal, but I hope the unique quality of this performance justifies its inclusion.

 12.   Nami Danam Che Manzil Bood  - Abdullah Manzoor Niazi Qawwal

I have been enchanted by Abdullah Manzoor Niazi’s voice ever since I heard him for the first time. He was accompanying his father in a recording from the fabulous “Rung” album. Abdullah Manzoor Niazi’s superbly ‘kharri’ and powerful voice contrasted wonderfully with his father’s unbelievably ‘meethi’ one. Even during his father’s lifetime, Abdullah Manzoor Niazi led the family party with aplomb. This kalam was performed at one of the last mehfils recorded before Ustad Manzoor Niazi stopped performing, but in this recording he sits back and lets his sons carry the performance, occasionally uttering an appreciative ‘aha!’ or ‘wah!’ in the background. Abdullah Niazi, like he did in the performance I witnessed in Karachi, singlehandedly carries the performance. Around the 9 minute mark, he steers the performance into a series of extended girahs which are charmingly delivered around a powerful takraar.

1.      Aaj Racho Hai Basant Nijam Ghar – Afsar Hussain Khan Qawwal
Unlike the Farsi kalaam of Hz Ameer Khusrau, most of which was published in his lifetime in his various Dwaans, the Hindvi Bandishes and kalaams attributed to him have a more checkered lineage. These kalaams have been sung and modified by various performers over the centuries so I’ve tried to limit myself to pieces which are attributed to Hz Ameer by the performers themselves. Starting off the Hincvi selection is a kalaam that is regularly sung at the annual Basant celebrations at Sufi shrines all over the subcontinent. This year’s Basant recently concluded and I’m sure many Qawwals would have sung this kalaam over the last two weeks. This performance comes from a wonderful concert LP by the “famous qawwal of Lucknow”, Afsar Ali Khan and Party. I don’t know anything about this Qawwal party and the only recordings of theirs that I possess are from this one LP, but what an LP! Afsar Hussain Khan has a remarkable voice, and him and his accompanists - chief among them Kafeel Hussain Khan – work their magic in this bandish in Raag Bahaar. The ‘bulbultarang’ is wonderful as after a slow start, the takraars and the sargams begin as the tempo picks up. The girahs arrive one after another on the takrar, each of the lead singers participating in the girah-bandi. Some of the Purbi girahs are rarely performed by other Qawwals, and by the end of the piece, Afsar Hussain Khan and his party have justified the title of “famous Qawwal of Lucknow”.

2.      Allah Ta’ala – Nisbati Qaul – Mohammad Hayat Nizami Qawwal
The late Ustad Muhammad Hayat Nizami was a regular presence at the shrine of Hz Nizamuddin Auliya (RA) at Delhi. He belonged to the ‘Sikandra’ gharana and is survived by his sons Zafar Hayat Nizami and Hamsar Hayat Nizami, both of whom lead their own Qawwal parties. Here he performs a rarely sung Nisbati Qaul of Hz Amir Khusrau (RA)’s, accompanied by a Sarangi and a Tambour. The percussion and taali lay down a wonderful beat and the Sarangi weaves around the voice; a voice which displays agility and poise despite the ravages of age. This recording was made in the courtyard of Hz Ameer’s tomb, and the Qawwals seem to feed off the spiritual energy. Nizami Sb leads the Sarangi with a series of sargams, and when the Sarangi decides to go it alone, encourages it with shouts of ‘Shaba re!’. It is a rarely heard kalaam, performed by one of the old masters of the Delhi khanqahi qaawwals. Near the end, the beat changes and the Qawwals launch into another Qaul, which is featured in a more complete form further down the post.

3.      Ao Gye Balam – Agha Rasheed Ahmad Fareedi Qawwal
From Darbaari Qawwals of Delhi to Darbaari Qawwals of Pakpattan. Agha Rasheed Ahmad Fareedi’s stature in my eyes increases with each passing day. I’ve written at length about him and he is one of my very favorite Qawwals, so I won’t go into too many biographical details. In this recording, Fareedi Sb and party perform a kalaam that has been performed for centuries on the occasion of Hz Baba Fariduddin Ganj Shakar (RA) at Pakpattan. The original ‘bandish’ goes ‘Vae gye Balam’, but the Qawwals at Pakpattan put a Punjabi spin on it. This kalaam is supposed to have been written by Hz Ameer (RA) when he returned from Sind to discover that his Murshid, Hz Nizamuddin Auliya (RA) had passed away.The effect is hypnotic as the takraar rumbles on, occasionally punctuated by a taan. Sadly, the recording is incomplete, but it is a powerful five minute exposition of Khusrau in a pure Punjabi andaaz.

4.      Bohat Kathin Hai Dagar Panghat Ki – Munshi Raziuddin Ahmed Qawwal
This recording is ripped from a video. The video was my first exposure to the absolute force of nature that was the late Munshi Raziuddin Qawwal. It took me barely five seconds to realize that I was witnessing a performer of superlative ability. Flanked by his two sons – young Farid Ayaz and Abu Muhammad – Razi Mian immediately commanded the attention of the viewer/listener. With a glance and a gesture, he guided his party through the kalam, suggesting a taan here, a girah there; and without fail, Farid and Abu Muhammad picked up on their musical cues and ably performed whatever was required, to the obvious satisfaction of their father, obviously the result of years and years of very rigorous training. Even though Farid Ayaz and Abu Muhammad had come into their own by this time, it is the spirit of Razi Mian that illuminates this performance.

5.      Panchayati Qaul – Meraj Ahmed Nizami Qawwal
Octogenarian Meraj Ahmed Nizami is currently the senior-most Qawwal in the subcontinent, and although in poor health these days, he is still the spiritual head of the Qawwal Bacchon Ka Gharana. Throughout his career, he has shunned newfangled concepts like fusion music etc and has steadfastly stuck to performing traditional khanqahi kalaams in a khanqahi style. Here he performs two traditional Qauls that are performed solely by the Qawwal Bacchon Ka Gharana, a fact that he proudly declaims at the start of the performance. The style is simple, with steady takraars and a series of wonderful girahs, and none of that superfluous taankaari that other Qawwals use. The first Qaul is the one which was sung briefly by Mohammad Hayat Nizami in the recording above, but Meraj Sb sings it from start to finish and then segues into the second, more rarely heard Qaul. In the latter third of the performance come the girahs, each more apt than the last. I sincerely hope that Meraj Sb regains his health and graces the Qawwali world with his presence for years to come.

6.      Mohe Apne Hi Rangg Main – Farid Ayaz, Abu Muhammad Qawwal
During Munshi Raziuddin Ahmed’s last few years, he sat with the Qawwal party but had deputed the leadership to Farid Ayaz, with Abu Muhammad and brothers in support. Farid Ayaz and Abu Muhammad have become Pakistan’s pre-eminent Qawwals in the years following their father’s death. This has been achieved by achieving a fine balance between the traditional Classical based andaaz of the Qawwal Bacchon Ka Gharana and the folk influences of the Punjabi Qawwali style. Here they perform a trademark bandish associated with their gharana, accompanied by their sons. Most of the performance is in the upper registers and barely escapes becoming jarring to the ears, but Farid Ayaz takes it down an interesting track arounf the 9 minute mark. He leads the rather reluctant party into a peculiar bandish with an unusual time-signature, and his obvious consternation at the party’s inability to satisfactorily follow him is slightly amusing, but the youngsters quickly recover. On my recent visit to Karachi, I had the pleasure of spending a day with Farid Ayaz, Abu Muhammad and the entirety of their party, and I can tell from first-hand observation that Farid is training the youngsters with a rigidity and single minded resolve that would have met the approval of his late father.

7.      Mun Kunto Maula – Shankar Shambhu Qawwal
The final Qaul in this selection is probably the original saying of the Prophet (SAW) that gave Qawwali its name. It has been sung by every Sufi musician worth (or in some cases not worth) their salt. It has been sung in Shyam Kalyan, in Shudh Kalyan and even in Bhopali. Depending upon the tastes of the audience and the qawwals themselves, it can either serve as a brief preamble to a performance, or a full production number with lengthy digressions and expositions. Years ago I wrote a post on some of my favorite versions of the Qaul, so for this selection I have picked the recording that I return to whenever I need to revisit the Qaul. Shankar Shambhu Qawwals – a duo of Hindu brothers – performed from the fifties to the early nineties and were fairly popular in the Qawwali circles of India, but weren’t that well known in Pakistan. This recording was taken from an LP they released in the late 1970s. Shankar starts off the Qaul in his wonderfully sweet voice as sitar notes cascade behind him. The start is languid and serene, with Shambhu joining the vocals. Past the two minute mark, the performance gathers steam, and in the up-tempo second half, Shankar lets his wonderful voice weave a series of brief taans. The tarana portion is short yet sweet, and the performance winds down just as quickly as it had gained steam. It is a four minute exercise in musical minimalism, and I love it.

8.      Phool Rahi Sarson – The Sabri Brothers  Ensemble
“Accha huzoor, sama’at farmaayen” begins Haji Ghulam Fareed Sabri, as the Sabri Brothers launch into the classical celebration of the arrival of spring. And what a celebration; a lot of purists tended to dismiss the Sabris as lacking in the proper Classical spirit. This ten minute rendition should prove them wrong. I needn’t write more about this performance beyond that it is my absolute favorite version of this kalaam.

9.      Najar-e-Karam Kun – Bahauddin Qutbuddin Qawwal
The seventh centennial of Hz Ameer Khusrau (RA)’s birth was celebrated across the subcontinent and the rest of the world in 1975. The governments of India and Pakistan marked the occasion with series of cultural activities, radio, television and the recording industry also took part in the festivities. In Pakistan, EMI in collaboration with Pakistan Television released a number of wonderful audiovisual recordings. In India, one of the most interesting releases was a dramatized audio-biography of Khusrau concieved and narrated by Prof. Zoe Ansari. The biography was interspersed with recordings of Khusrau’s kalaam performed by artists from India, Pakistan and Iran. Representing Pakistan were Ustad Bahauddin Qutbuddin Qawwals. Their recordings for this project are absolutely wonderful, and one of them is included here. The bandishes are in Raags Basant and Bahar, with a wonderful Sitar intoning in the background. Prof. Ansari occasionally interrupts with a spoken interlude, but mostly the Qawwals are left to their own devices. And left to his own devices, Ustad Bahauddin Khan dazzles. His voice is rapier-sharp as he starts off at a dizzying tempo and keeps ratcheting it up every minute. There are takraars and taans aplenty as the main kalaam seamlessly segues into a tarana. Ustad Bahauddin Khan’s voice was at its peak throughout the seventies, and here he effortlessly navigates the treacherous taraana. Bahauddin Khan had recently left the ‘Barri Party’ or the original Manzoor Niazi Party and was forging his own individual path. While he was recording in India …

10.  Tori Soorat Ke Balhari Nijam – Manzoor Ahmed Niazi Qawwal Aur Hamnavaa
…the rest of the Barri Party (sans Iftekhar Ahmad Nizami who had passed away) had been joined by the youthful voices of Naseeruddin Saami and a young Farid Ayaz and were recording their own LP for Khusrau’s seventh centennial celebrations. Munshi Raziuddin Ahmed led the party for this LP recording for EMI Pakistan. Naseeruddin Saami and Farid Ayaz start off the doha, which is completed by Ustad Manzoor Niazi. Accompanied by Sitar, which I have a suspicion was played by young Farid Ayaz, the Qawwals then launch into the main kalaam. In keeping with most of the recordings released during the seventh centennial celebrations, there is no girah-bandi. Instead, Munshi Raziuddin Sb leads the party through the main kalaam, while Manzoor Niazi Sb offers taans in his ‘koel-like voice’. It is a last glimpse of one of the greatest musical ensembles of the subcontinent, as a couple of years after this recording, the various Qawwals went their separate ways and formed their own Qawwal parties.

11.  Chaap Tilak Sab Cheeni – Haji Mahboob Ali Qawwal
Every Qawwal and their mother has performed this kalaam, as has every light-classical or thumri singer, ditto for every other singer with an aspiration for being called Sufi. Some Qawwals highlight the temporal meanings of this kalaam, while others focus on the spiritual; but no one explores the mystical undertones of the kalaam better than Haji Mahboob Sb. From a Classical point of view, the performance isn’t up to scratch, the instrumentation is Spartan at best, but Haji Sb’s superlative girah-bandi frees the kalaam from earthly bounds. I tend to veer into superlatives whenever I discuss Haji Sb’s performances, but in this case I can’t help it. The moment I listen to the girah at the 6:41 mark, I am immediately transported into an altogether different state of mind. The girahs are in Urdu, Farsi and Punjabi and they continue with each verse of the kalaam. I find the penultimate verse especially endearing as Haji Sb substitutes the Urdu word for the color green –harri – into the Punjabi –saavi- thus immediately giving the whole kalaam a Punjabi tinge. It is a brilliant performance, and I love it to bits.

12.  Rung – Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan And Party
Khanqahi Qawwali mehfils usually end with a performance of the traditional piece known as the ‘Rung’, so it is fitting that I end this post, as well as this years-spanning series of posts on the ‘Rung’ too. This kalaam, a celebration of ‘Holi’ – the traditional festival of colors, is usually sung as an up-tempo, bombastic dhamaal. But in this selection from his phenomenal 1987 series of performances at the Kufa Gallery in London, Nusrat decides to eschew bombast in favor of a wonderful manqabat. His party doesn’t intrude with needless calisthenics as Nusrat chants the names of the saints one by one, before taking the performance into a new and altogether wonderful direction around the 6 minute mark. From this point onwards, Nusrat, obviously enjoying himself, allows himself room to play with the verses and the themes and the raag itself, as he constructs takraars and sargams, diverting into other kalaams and returning to the main kalaam at will. Some of the bandishes he uses, especially towards the end of the kalaam, are rarely sung these days, and were rarely sung by Nusrat himself. It is an exercise in restrained artistry that became rarer and rarer as the years wore on.  

And that's that for a series of posts that has spanned four years and has survived laptop crashes, corrupted harddrives, acts of God and the greatest obstacle of all; my superhuman laziness. I have managed to share and write about more than a hundred Qawwali recordings, and in the process I have discovered many new artists and recordings that have enriched the countless hours I have spent listening to them. I hope I'll keep on discovering new things to enjoy and write about, and that this blog will help me interact with many others who share my passions.


  1. Oh fellow traveler and partner in crime, this is a lovely post with such an amazing and extensive collection of diverse kalams. Jeete raho Musab. It will take a few days to absorb all these and do justice to them. I'm sure there are several that I haven't heard before :-). Thanks for sharing.

  2. Chaman mein phool hein hazar
    Dekh Zafar hai kia bahar
    Sab ke hein rang juda juda
    Sab ki hai boo alag alag
    Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar

    You should be named " The distributor of joy " You have made my heart happy MMay Allah swt bless you

    Your Saida Khala

  3. In the hope you will overcome your "laziness" as we are impatiently awaiting your next post
    Thank you
    Saida Haider

  4. Hi,

    I posted a comment yesterday on an old blog of yours on Hz Bedam Shah Warsi. Well, I wanted a separate compilation of qawallis on poorvi/hindavi, and here it is!

    Since I have found your blog three days ago, it has been a joy to listen to old qawwallis. I am partial to khayal based, traditional version with minimal and desi instruments. And your collection fits the bill!!!

    Can you do a compilation of old recordings of Munshi Ustad Raziuddin, when he was in his prime? I am a great fan of his.

  5. I have put two comments in last few days. But, being not net savvy, my last two posts came as anonymous. I keep getting back here to listen to pieces with strong classical flavours (eg, those by Fateh Ali Khan and Mubarak Ali Khan)

    Can you do another write-up with some more of Khusrau's qawallis? I have been searching for really nice examples of two of my favourites: Chasme Maste Ajabe and Zihaal e Miskeel Makun Taghaful.

    Keep up the great work!

  6. remarkable research, great work, selections of qavalis by legends r really great u have made real efforts thanks, ghazala arif kably

  7. Dear Musab,
    First of all, thank you so much for these gems. For many years, I kept wondering about the Man kunto maula heard in the background of a crucial scene (set in Hazrat Nizamuddin Dargah) of Gulzar's iconic Mirza Ghalib serial from Doordarshan. (It's on youtube, shows up if you type Mirza Ghalib, Man Kunto Maula) Then accidentally came across it while listening to an ancient LP I had picked up from an old collector. It was Shankar Shambhu Qawwal! And within a few months, you posted him here too. Felt blessed twice! Thank you so much for the great work you are doing.... Lots of love from India...

  8. beautiful collection... thankyou so much...